An open-content, electronic journal published by the Animal Demography Unit
at the University of Cape Town

Shadow boxing by birds - a literature study and new data from southern Africa

Joel Roerig

Abstract: Avian shadow boxing can be described as birds attacking, fighting, calling, pecking, displaying or flying at their reflections in mirrors or windows in an attempt to defend their territory against a perceived intruder. For the first time, this study summarizes the literature on this topic; it lists 78 species recorded shadow boxing worldwide

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